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Aquae Arnemetiae

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dernière mise à jour 22/10/2008 13:12:37

Définition : Ville d'Angleterre; comté de Derbyshire. Autre fois station thermale romaine Aquae Arnemetiae.



Extrait de la carte Ordnance Survey : Map of Roman Britain.



A. Aquae Arnemetiae

* Rivet & Smith, p. 254 : 

- Ravenna, 10657 : AQUIS ARNEMEZA; variante ARNEMEYA.

DERIVATION. The name is Latin, 'waters of Arnemetia', here in the locative (as in one record of the next name). Many places having hot or medicinal springs were so designated; well-known Continental examples include Aquae > Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), Aquae Sextae > Aix en-Provence, Aquae Terebellicae now Dax.

In Ravenna's form the genitive ending of the goddess's name should be -e (for -ae). The -z- shows assibilation of c and t plus yod, /kj/ and /tj/, in the Cosmographer's speech : the same is shown by his forms Canza 106,1& Cunetzone 106,21 and Melezo 106,16, in all of which -ti- is to be re-established.

Arnemetia contains the British elements *are- *ar- ' in front of (are - = 'ante', Vienna Glossary) plus nemet- 'sacred grove'. The goddess herself is mentioned in RIB 281, an altar from the Roman fort at Navio (Brough-on-Noe, Derbyshire) : Deae Arnomecte. . . (dative), where it is odd to find a doubly incorrect spelling in the latinised form of British nemet-, which must have been widely known. Another goddess Nemetona appears on an altar at Bath, RIB 140, and is known on the Continent also. CIL XII. 2820 records the Arnemetici.

Nemet-nemeton is a widespread and fundamental word of the early Celtic world. It designated natural sacred groves and artificial constructions also (in Ireland, nemed was glossed 'sacellum' = ' sanctuary'), and was well known to Latin speakers in Celtic areas, cf. 'de sacris silvarum quae nimidas vocant' cited by Holder from an Indiculus superstitionum et paganiorum. The word is based on an assumed *nem-os 'heaven', cf. Sanskrit nam 'to worship' and Old Irish nemhta 'holy'; cognates in the sense 'grove' are Greek nemos and Latin nemus. See Holder II, 712; Whatmough DAG 166-67; T. G. Powell, The Celts (1958), 138-40; A. Ross, Pagan CelticBritain (1967), 36-37. Place-names with this element are frequent (Holder II. 708 ff.). Of interest are Augustonemetum now Clermont-Ferrand (Puy-de-Dôme, France), Nemetacum Atrebatum now Arras (Pas-de-Calais, France), Nemetodurum > Nanterre (Seine, France), and Nemetobriga near modern Pueblo de Tribes (Orense, Spain). In Galatia the Celtic tribes had Drunemeton as their common sanctuary. In Britain the element is represented in Medionemetum, Nemeto Statio and Vernemetum. The Mole and Yeo rivers of Devon were known in older times as Nymet, Nemet (Ekwall ERN 304), a name which survives in that of three places in Devon (Ekwall EPN). There are fïnally two itetns of epigraphic evidence from Britain. In JRS, LII (1962), 192, there is recorded the finding at Nettleham (Lincs.) of a dedication slab to Mars Rigonemetos 'king of the sanctuary', a god known also abroad. In JRS, XLIV (1954), 110, a dish found in the City of London is published, having a graffito )Nemet on the base, presumably the name of the owner (possibly with a missing prefix).

IDENTIFICATION. The Roman spa at Buxton, Derbyshire (SK 0673).


Signification : Les Eaux d'Arnemetia, du nom d'une déesse celtique, lui-même basé sur la radical *nemed = sacré, sanctuaire, cieux sacrés, etc. 


B. Buxton

* Eilert Ekwall.

- Buchestanes, c. 1100 Mon v; Bucstanes, 1230 P; 1251 Ch; Bucstones 1287, Court.

... there was probably some logan-stone at Buxton. Buckstone 'logan-stone' possibly represents an OE *bug-stan 'bowing stone'.


Sources :

* Eilert EKWALL : The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1936. Ed. 1980.

* Ordnance Survey : Map of Roman Britain.

* ALF RIVET & Colin SMITH : The Place-Names of Roman Britain. Batsford Ltd. London. 1979.

Autres liens Internet traitant de Buxton / Aquae Arnemetiae

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